Clipper & Clamper

A circuit which cutoff voltage above or below are both specified level is called clipper. A clipper which removes a portion of positive

Waveguide Modes

The signal through wave guide is propagated by different modes which are explained as below.


Waveguide is the type of transmission line which carries microwave frequencies from source to load. The energy is in the form of electric

Saw Filter

As shown in the given diagram the saw filter consists of a piece of quartz crystal material on the surface of which the metallic fingers are engraved.

Radiometric Quantities

There are following radiometric quantities. Energy, Power, Irradiance, Exitance, Steradian, Intensity, Radiance

Ruby Maser

The RUBY MASER consist of a ruby crystal kept in the cavity. The cavity is enclosed by a jacket of liquid helium in order to observe the


The ward radar means radio direction and ranging. Radar is a system which is used to find out the direction of the target.