Basic Electronics

Ampacity Table

Ampacities of Insulated Conductors. The load current rating and the over current protection for conductor types shall not exceed 15 amperes for 14 AWG, 20 amperes for 12 AWG, and 30 amperes for 10 AWG alumin


When a length of wire is formed into a coil, as shown in Figure 1, it becomes a basic inductor. The terms coil and inductor are used interchangeably.

Transistor codes

There are three main series of transistor codes used in the UK:The first letter B is for silicon, A is for germanium (rarely used now). The second letter indicates the type; for example C means low power audio frequency; D means high power audio frequency; F means low power high frequency.

Communication System

Color Code for Fiber Optic Cables

Fiber Optic Cable Color Coding

Fibers are housed inside of colored plastic tubes (or wrapped in colored threads or plastic ribbons): colors of the tubes go in the same sequence of the fibers: Blue, Orange, Green, etc.

Causes of Light Losses in Fiber Optics

Waveguide & Microbend Losses in Fiber Optics In the light loss in fiber, there are different factors involves, in which the three are most fundamental causes. Material loss, Light scattering and Wave guide & Bend losses

Principles of Fiber Optics

Optical Fiber Low order Mode Fiber optics principles, the principle on which fiber optics is based. i.e. step index, Total internal reflection, mode propagation, Meridional & Skew wave and more

Devices & Circuits

Tunnel Diode

Tunnel Diode This diode was first introduced by Dr. Leo Easki in 1958. It is called a tunnel diode because due to its extremely thin depletion layer,

Zener diodes

Zener diodZener diodes are used to maintain a fixed voltage. They are designed to 'breakdown' in a reliable and non-destructive way so that they can be used in reverse

Darlington pair

Darlington pairDarlington Pair consists of two transistors connected together so that the amplified current from the first is amplified further by the second transistor.

Digital Electronics

Pulse Generator

Pulse Generator Block Diagram A device that produces an electrical discharge at regular intervals, which can be modified as needed, as in an electronic pacemaker.

Ramp Generators

Constant Current Ramp Generator Circuit Diagram What is ramp generator, Define methods used for ramp generations and circuits types used for ramp generation.

Applications of Flip Flops

JK Flip Flop Used as a Frequency Division Flip flops are used in digital electronics some of its main applications are described below.

Industrial Electronics

IGBT - Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

IGBT Construction & symbol The insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a device which combines the fast acting features and high power capability of the bipolar transistor


MOSFET Power MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is a device derived from the FET for use as a fast acting switch at high power levels

Power transistor

Power Transistor SymbolThe bipolar power transistor is a three layer NPN or PNP device within the working range, the collector current IC is a function of the base current IB,



Microwave & Radar

Definitions regarding Electromagnetic waves

Some important definitions of terms used in electromagnetic waves.i.e wavelength multiplexing,fresnel reflection, optical dispersion, absorption, scattering, group velocity photon, polarization, wave length λ


Laws of Relfection Optical rays are the single line or narrow beam of light from a small or distant source.

Electromagnetic Waves

When the alternating current passes through a wire than it sets up an electromagnetic field that propagate away from the wire.


How 3D printer work

3D Printer 3D printer owners choses between two types of plastic: acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA).

Cleaning your TV:”the best and the worst ways”

Cleaning TV Screen You've invested thousands of bucks in your TV. So how should you clean the screen without a risk? The Internet is full of ideas and ads touting the best products.

Intel Unleashes its fastest ever consumer drive

Intel 730 SSD Drive 480 GB Finally Intel announced it would not release a user customizable SSD after all ; it is opting instead ot push the processor clock speed on...

IGBT - Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

IGBT Construction & symbol The insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a device which combines the fast acting features and high power capability of the bipolar transistor Read more about IGBT - Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

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by Dr. Radut