Symbols And Abbreviations

Abbreviations of Symbols used in electronics.

XLR-3, XLR-5 Connectors

XLR-3, XLR-5 Pin out configuration

HDMI Port Pinout

HDMI Port PinoutHDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface) Pinout configuration

Thyristor Gate Firing Networks

Typical Firing CircuitA firing network consists of a Transformer for isolating a resistor R1 to limit gate current and a resistor R2 to limit gate voltage. When the thyristor is in the OFF state

How to turn off the thyristor

Thyristor Current During Trun offTo turn off the thyristor the anode current must be reduced below the holding level and a relatively long time allowed elapsing for the thyristor...

Thyristor Volt Ampere Characteristics

Thyristor With gate terminal openThe thyristor in this condition may be considered as three diodes in series, with directions such as to prevent conduction in either direction.


Thyristor was invented in 1957 at Bell Labs. They are extensively used as switches, operating from conducting state to non-conducting state.

Tunnel Diode

Tunnel DiodeThis diode was first introduced by Dr. Leo Easki in 1958. It is called a tunnel diode because due to its extremely thin depletion layer,

Rotary Or Mechanical Dial

Rotary Or Mechanical DialA Rotary Or Mechanical Dial is an impulse sending device. When the subscriber lifts his handset, the D.C. loop is completed and steady current flows through the line provided by the exchange.


LVDT Linear Voltage Diffrential TransducerLVDT consist of one primary winding and two secondary windings, which are placed at either side of the primary winding on the same magnetic core as shown in figure


Waveguide is the type of transmission line which carries microwave frequencies from source to load. The energy is in the form of electric field and magnetic field which are perpendicular to each other the electric field and magnetic field inside.


Co-axial CableTransmission line is defined as the path of carrying alternating electrical energy from source to load. For example the wire used between T.V antenna and television set or the wire used between transmitter antenna and transmitter are known as transmission


   With reference to an electrical system, noise may be defined as any unwanted form of energy which tends to...

Short Circuited Transmission Line

Short Circuited Transmission LineAs shown in the diagram at the short circuited end the current is maximum and voltage is minimum. At each λ/2 interval. This behavior is repeated if we move away form the load end towards the source.

Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis

Pre-emphasis circuitPre-emphasis refers to booting the relative amplitudes of the voltage for higher audio frequencies from 2 to approximately 15 KHz.

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