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Batteries Specifications - Lithium, Zinc, Oxide, Alkaline

Lithium cells are rated nominally 3V (on-load), 3.5V (open circuit). Zinc Air Button Cells Nominal voltage on discharge is 1.2V

Symbols And Abbreviations

Abbreviations of Symbols used in electronics.

Linear Wave Shaping & Different Types of Waveforms

Timing circuits networks composed of resistors, capacitors and inductors are called linear network and they do not change the waveform of a sine wave when it is transmitted through them.


Power MOSFET SymbolThe power Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) is a device derived from the field effect transistor (FET) for use as a fast acting switch at power levels. MOSFET is a voltage controlled device.

IGBT - Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

IGBT Construction & symbol The insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a device which combines the fast acting features and high power capability of the bipolar transistor

Power transistor

Power Transistor SymbolThe bipolar power transistor is a three layer NPN or PNP device within the working range, the collector current IC is a function of the base current IB,



Gate turn OFF (G.T.O) Thyristor

Gate OFF Thyristor StructureThe conventional thyristor can only be turned off by effectively reducing the anode current to zero, but the gate turn off thyristor, as its name implies, has a structure such that it can be turned off y removing current from the gate.

Thyristor Gate Firing Networks

Typical Firing CircuitA firing network consists of a Transformer for isolating a resistor R1 to limit gate current and a resistor R2 to limit gate voltage. When the thyristor is in the OFF state

How to turn off the thyristor

Thyristor Current During Trun offTo turn off the thyristor the anode current must be reduced below the holding level and a relatively long time allowed elapsing for the thyristor...

Thyristor Volt Ampere Characteristics

Thyristor With gate terminal openThe thyristor in this condition may be considered as three diodes in series, with directions such as to prevent conduction in either direction.


Thyristor was invented in 1957 at Bell Labs. They are extensively used as switches, operating from conducting state to non-conducting state.

Tunnel Diode

Tunnel DiodeThis diode was first introduced by Dr. Leo Easki in 1958. It is called a tunnel diode because due to its extremely thin depletion layer,

Ampacity Table

Ampacities of Insulated Conductors. The load current rating and the over current protection for conductor types shall not exceed 15 amperes for 14 AWG, 20 amperes for 12 AWG, and 30 amperes for 10 AWG alumin

Color Code for Fiber Optic Cables

EIA598-A Standard

Position Base Color
1 Blue
2 Orange
3 Green
4 Brown


Dispersion (Optical Fiber)The effect that causes the output pulse to be wider than the input pulse is called dispersion.

Causes of Light Losses in Fiber Optics

Light losses in Fiber Optics due to scattering by Large obstructionIn the light loss in fiber, there are different factors involves, in which the three are most fundamental causes. Material loss, Light scattering and Waveguide & Bend losses

Principles of Fiber Optics

Step Index

Fiber optics principles, the principle on which fiber optics is based. i.e. step index, Total internal reflection, mode propagation, Meridional & Skew wave and more

Definitions regarding Electromagnetic waves

Some important definitions of terms used in electromagnetic waves.i.e wavelength multiplexing,fresnel reflection, optical dispersion, absorption, scattering, group velocity photon, polarization, wave length λ


RefractionOptical rays are the single line or narrow beam of light from a small or distant source.

Electromagnetic Waves

When the alternating current passes through a wire than it sets up an electromagnetic field that propagate away from the wire.