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Color Code for Fiber Optic Cables

EIA598-A Standard

Position Base Color
1 Blue
2 Orange
3 Green
4 Brown

Causes of Light Losses in Fiber Optics

Light losses in Fiber Optics due to scattering by Large obstructionIn the light loss in fiber, there are different factors involves, in which the three are most fundamental causes. Material loss, Light scattering and Waveguide & Bend losses

Principles of Fiber Optics

Step Index

Fiber optics principles, the principle on which fiber optics is based. i.e. step index, Total internal reflection, mode propagation, Meridional & Skew wave and more

AM Transmitters

Block diagram of High-Level AM TransmitterTransmitters that transmit AM signals are known as AM transmitters. These transmitters are used in medium wave (MW) and short wave (SW) frequency bands for AM broadcast.

Wireless Telegraphy

At the transmitter side, when the key is pressed, the telegraph signal current passes through the modulator, where high frequency signal from the osc is also received.

Step-By-Step Switching or Strowger System

This was the first automatic telephone system introduced by Almon B. Strowger. This system uses selectors for switching.

Tone Dialing

In tone dialing type of telephones, pressing the digit keys causes the dial network to produce specific tones that the central office recognizes and decodes.

Rotary Or Mechanical Dial

Rotary Or Mechanical DialA Rotary Or Mechanical Dial is an impulse sending device. When the subscriber lifts his handset, the D.C. loop is completed and steady current flows through the line provided by the exchange.

Telephone Set

The subscriber telephone set consists of the following parts:


A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is a electromechanical typewriter that can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point and point to multipoint over a variety of communication channels


Telegraphy is used to transfer information in the written form. It is a combination of two words. "Tele" means at a distance and "Graph" means to write. Hence telegraphy is to write at a distance.

Optical Fiber

The transmission media used for the communication of signals from one point to another are copper wires, coaxial cables, wave-guides and radio links.

Morse Code

Morse code is named in honor of Samuel F.B. Morse, an American who invented the telegraphic code. The morse code basically consists of two elements, the dot (.), called "dit", which is the shortest element

Manual telephone Exchange

The Manvel Telephone System is one of the first full duplex ( tow way) communication System, In this type of telephone Network the subscriber

Machine Telegraphy

Machine telegraphy started with the 5-unit code system and worked very well. However, the matching of the sending and receiving mechanism was very critical.


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