A multivibrator which generates square waves of its own (i.e without any external trigger pulse) is known as astable multivibrator. It is also called free ramming multivibrator. It has no stable state but only two quasi-stable (half-stable) makes oscillating continuously between these states. Thus it is just an oscillator since it requires no external pulse for its operation of course it does require D.C power.
In such circuit neither of the two transistors reaches a stable state. It switches back and forth from one state to the other, remaining in each state for a time determined by circuit constants. In other words, at first one transistor conducts (i.e. ON state) and the other stays in the OFF state for some time. After this period of time , the second transistor is automatically turned ON and the first transistor turned OFF. Thus the multivibrator will generate a square wave of its own. The width of the square wave and it frequency will depend upon the circuit constants.
Here we like to describe.
- Collector - coupled Astabe multivibrator
- Emitter - coupled Astable multivibrator
- Astable multivibrator using OP-AMP
- 555 timer IC as Astable multivibraotor
Collector - Coupled Astable Multivibrator
Figure (a) shows the circuit of a collector coupled astable multivibrator using two identical NPN transistors Q1 and Q2. It is possible to have RL1 = RL2 = RL = R1 = R2 = R and C1 = C2 = C. In that case , the circuit is known as symmetrical astable multivibrator. The transistor Q1 is forward biased by the Vcc supply through resistor R2. Similarly the transistor Q2 is forward biased by the Vcc supply through resistor R1. The output of transistor Q1 is coupled to the input of transistor Q2 through the capacitor C2. Similarly the output of transistor Q2 is coupled to the input of transistor Q1 through the capacitor C1.
It consists of two common emitter amplifying stages. Each stage provides a feedback through a capacitor at the input of the other . Since the amplifying stage introduces a 180o phase shift and another 180o phase shift is introduced by a capacitor , therefore the feedback signal and the circuit works as an oscillator. In other words because of capacitive coupling none of the transistor can remain permanently out-off or saturated, instead of circuit has two quasi-stable states (ON and OFF) and it makes periodic transition between these two states.
The output of an astable multivibrator is available at the collector terminal of the either transistors as shown in figure (a). However, the two outputs are 180o out of phase with each other. Therefore one of the output is said to be the complement of the other.
Let us suppose that
- When Q1is ON, Q2 is OFF and
- When Q2 is ON, Q1 is OFF.
When the D.C power supply is switched ON by closing S, one of the transistors will start conducting before the other (or slightly faster then the other). it is so because characteristics of no two similar transistors can be exactly alike suppose that Q1 starts conducting before Q2 does. The feedback system is such that Q1 will be very rapidly driven ton saturation and Q2 to cut-off. The circuit operation may be explained as follows.
- Since Q1 is in saturation whole of VCC drops across RL1. Hence VC1 = 0 and point A is at zero or ground potential.
- Since Q2 is in cut-off i.e. it conducts no current, there is no drop across RL2. Hence point B is at VCC.
- Since A is at 0V C2 starts to charge through R2 towards VCC.
- When voltage across C2 rises sufficiently (i.e. more than 0.7V), it biases Q2 in the forward direction so that it starts conducting and is soon driven to saturation.
- VCC decreases and becomes almost zero when Q2 gets saturated. The potential of point B decreases from VCC to almost 0V. This potential decrease (negative swing) is applied to the base of Q1 through C1. Consequently, Q1 is pulled out of saturation and is soon driven to cut-off.
- Since, now point B is at 0V, C1 starts charging through R1 towards the target voltage VCC.
- When voltage of C1 increases sufficiently. Q1 becomes forward-biased and starts conducting. In this way the whole cycle is repeated.
It is observed that the circuit alternates between a state in which Q1 is ON and Q2 is OFF and the state in which Q1 is OFF and Q2 is ON. This time in each states depends on RC values. Since each transistor is driven alternately into saturation and cut-off. The voltage waveform at either collector (points A and B in figure (b)) is essentially a square waveform with a peak amplitude equal to VCC.
Emitter - Coupled Astabel Multivibrator
Figure (c) shows the circuit diagram of an emitter coupled asable multivibrator.
In a collector coupled symmetrical astable multivibrator if it is desired to vary the frequency., then it is necessary
(i) to vary both the timing capacitor simultaneously
(ii) to vary both the timing resistor subject ot the conduction that the values are enough to keep the transistors in saturation
(iii) to vary VBB which also can not be varied over a long range. Thus it is difficult to achieve frequency control in collector coupled astable multivibrator, not an emitter coupled multivibrator, to be described here, has a single timing capacitor connected across the emitter. This capacitor can be varied easily.
In order to explain the operation of the circuit, ti is necessary that the following conditions must be satisfied.
- In D.C. conduction i.e. with timing capacitor C removed bias should be so adjusted that both the transistors are in active region.
- Under D.C. condition, the D.C. loop gain should be less than unity to void bistable operation.
- In the active region, the loop gain must be greater than unity at some non-zero frequency.
- Bias conditions ar3e so adjusted that with the capacitor C concerned, during normal operation, transistor C1 operates between cut-off and saturation while transistor C2 operates at the same time between its active region and the off region. This transistor Q1 operates in saturated mode and transistor Q1 operates in saturated mode and transistor Q2 operates in unsaturated mode.
Astable multivibrator using OP-AMP
Figure (d) shows differential input operational amplifier acting as a free running symmetrical multivibrator.
The two states of the circuit between which it switches are those in which the amplifier output is at positive and negative saturation. R1 and R2 provide a fixed level of positive feedback and R and C provide a frequency dependent level of negative feedback. At high frequencies the negative feedback is reduced and the circuit becomes unstable. The circuit can not hang up in either output stage and is self starting.
As terminal B is positive with respect to terminal A and its potential is decreasing as C charges down through R. When the potential difference between the two input terminals approached zero the amplifier comes out of saturation. The positive feedback from the output to terminal A causes a regenerative switching which drives the amplifier to positive saturation. The voltage across a capacitor in series with a resistor can not change instantaneously, the potential at the terminal B, therefore, remain substantially constant during this rapid transition. Capacitor C now charges up through R and the potential at C rises exponentially, when it reaches βV01 (sat) the circuit switches back to the state in which the amplifier is in negative saturation.
555 Timer Circuit as a Astable Multivibrator
Figure (d) shows the circuit diagram of a astable multivibrator using a 555 timer.
Figure shows an astable mode of operation for 555 timer. Here, the capacitor C will charge through RA and RS then discharge through RS only. The duty cycle may be controlled, therefore, by the values of RA and RS.
In order to understand the operation of both astable and monostable multivibrator circuit using 555 timer, functional diagram of 555 timer is shown in figure (e).