Digital Electronics

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Digital electronics notes, lectures for engineering and diploma students

Linear Wave Shaping & Different Types of Waveforms

Timing circuits networks composed of resistors, capacitors and inductors are called linear network and they do not change the waveform of a sine wave when it is transmitted through them.

Pulse Generator

Pulse Generator Block Diagram

A device that produces an electrical discharge at regular intervals, which can be modified as needed, as in an electronic pacemaker.

Ramp Generators

RC Ramp Generator Circuit diagram and input output voltages

What is ramp generator, Define methods used for ramp generations and circuits types used for ramp generation.

Applications of Flip Flops

Four stage Counter

Flip flops are used in digital electronics some of its main applications are described below.

Clocked or Triggered Flip Flop

Clock Waveform (a) Full clock Pulse (b) Leading edge (c) Trailing edge

What is Clocked or triggered flip flops. Positive, Negative and Level triggered flip flps. Application of of clocked flip flops

Flip Flop

A digital computer needs devices which can store information. A flip flop is a binary storage device. It can store binary bit either 0 or 1. It has two stabel states HIGH and LOW i.e. 1 and 0. 


As the name suggests, it is a circuit which counts. The main purpose of the counter is to record the number of occurrence of some input.

Shift Registers

A register is a device which is used to store information. Flip flops are often used to make a register. 

Schmitt Trigger

Schmitt trigger belongs to a class of bistable multivibrator circuits. In a bistable, there exist two D.C. couplings from each output to input of the other. But in Schmitt trigger circuit, there exists only one coupling. It can be recalled that if in the emitter coupled bistable the feedback network from the collector of transistor Q2 to the base of transistor Q1 is removed , it becomes  a Schmitt trigger circuit.


A comparator is a device which is used to sense when an arbitrary varying signal reaches some threshold or reference level.

Intel 8085 8-bit Microprocessor

Intel 8085 is an 8-bit, NMOS microprocessor. It is a 40 pin C package fabricated on a single LSI chip. The Intel 8085A uses a single +5V D.C

Sequential Logic Circuits

A sequential logic circuit is defined as the one in which the present output is a function of the previous history or sequence of the inputs and also of the present input combination.

Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC)

The process of converting an analog voltage into an equivalent digital signal is know as analog to digital (ADC) conversion.

Digital To Analog Converter (DAC)

Digital to analog converter is used to convert digital quantity into analog quantity. DAC converter produces an output current of voltage proportional to digital quantity (binary word) applied to its input.


Sampling process converts a continuous signal into a train of pulses. The sampler performing the operation of sampling may


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