# Laws Of Resistance

The resistance of a material depends upon the fallowing four factors, which are called laws of resistance.

## 1^{st} law of resistance

*The resistance of conductor is directly proportional to the length of the conductor. Greater is the length of conductor greater will be the resistance, similarly smaller is the length, and smaller will be the resistance of the conductor. *

## 2^{nd} law of resistance

*The resistance of the conductor is inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of the conductor. Greater is the cross sectional area smaller will be the resistance and when smaller is cross sectional area greater will be the resistance *

## 3^{rd} law of resistance

*The resistance of the conductor depends upon the nature of the conductor. Two wire having the same gauges, but different material will have different resistance. *

## 4^{th} law of resistance

The resistance of the conductor depends upon the temperature of it. Resistance of metallic conductor increase with increase in temperature of the conductor.

Taking in to consideration 1^{st} three laws and neglecting 4^{th} law for movement, we have

**R ∝ L** ...........(eq. 1)

**R ∝ l / A** ...........(eq. 2)

From equation 1 and 2 we get

Where ρ is called rho .it is a constant and is known as resistivity or specific resistance of a material.

Its unit is **Ωm**.

## SPECIFIC RESISTANCE

It is the resistance of opposite faces of a unit cube of a material.

## RESISTIVITY

The resistivity of a material is based on the resistance of define volume of that material the letter symbol for resistivity is ϱ (the Greek letter Rho)**.**

Resistivity may also be called specific resistance. Table list the resistivity in ohm-centimetre (Ω.cm). It also lists values in units of circular mil-ohms per foot (cmil-Ω/ft) for the conductor group.

Resistivity of Selected Electrical Materials | ||
---|---|---|

Material | ϱ (resistivity) at 20^{o }C | |

Ω.cm | cmil Ω/ft | |

Conductors | ||

Silver | 1.65 X 10^{-6} | 9.9 |

Copper | 1.72 X 10^{-6} | 10.37 |

Gold | 2.44 X 10^{-6} | 14.7 |

Aluminum | 2.83 X 10^{-6} | 17 |

Tungsten | 5.49 X 10^{-6} | 33 |

Nickel | 7.81 X 10^{-6} | 47 |

Iron | 1.23 X 10^{-5} | 74 |

Constantan | 4.90 X 10^{-5} | 295 |

Nichrome | 9.97 X 10^{-5} | 600 |

Semiconductors | ||

Carbon | 3.49 X 10^{-3} | |

Germanium | 4.70 X 10^{1} | |

Silicon | 6.40 X 10^{4} | |

Insulators | ||

Polyvinylchloride | >10^{10} | |

Mica | >10^{12} | |

Teflon | >10^{15} | |

Quartz | > 10^{17} |

Specific resistance can be derived from the following relations of the resistance dependence factors.

### 1. LENGTH

Resistance is directly proportional to the length of conductor.

R ∝ L ---------1

### 2. AREA

Resistance is inversely proportional to the area of conductor.

R ∝ 1/A ----------2

by combining 1 and 2

R ∝ L/A

R = ϱ L/A

Where ϱ (Rho) is constant for the material called its specific resistance or resistivity.

**"The Specific resistance of a material is the resistance of a piece of unit length and unit cross-sectional area."**

**OR**

**"It is the resistance between opposite faces of unit cube of the material."**

Specific resistance is measured in Ohm-inch or Ohm-cm or Micro ohm-inch or Micro ohm-cm.