Basically nuclear power plant is a thermal power station but a nuclear power station the heat required for converting water into steam is obtained by fission and not from combustion of fuel. The place where atoms of fuel (Uranium) are splitted is known as nuclear reactor. From reactor heat is converted to a heat exchanger where it convert water into steam. the steam is delivered to the steam turbine the turbine convert water into steam. The steam is delivered to the steam turbine. The turbine convert the H.E and K.E of steam into mechanical energy. Electric generator is coupled either directly or through gearing system to the turbine. Electric generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. The exhaust steam from the turbine is condused into condensor and then the condensate is pumped to the heat exchanger fro the next cycle.
Elements of Nuclear Power Plant
Reactor is very important part of Nuclear Power Plant. It known as a heart of a nuclear power plant. In reactor nuclear fuel (U235)is subjected to nuclear fission.
The coolant gives of heat to the heat exchanger which is used for producing the steam. After giving of heat the coolant is again feed to the reactor. In nuclear power plant heat exchanger works as a boiler.
It is a device for converting heat energy of steam into mechanical energy. It consist of wheel to which are fix the number of blades. There are two types of steam turbines.
The steam turbine drives AC generator. These are some time four poles machines with a speed of 1500rpm for 50 cycle per second frequency or 1800rpm for 60 cycle second frequency. But most of the time they are three phase type machines. All the high capacity generator are two poles with a speed of 3000rpm for 50 Hz or 3600rpm for 60 Hz frequency. A turbine generator consists of stator and rotor.
It is a device used for condencing the exhaust steam, hence it produces vacuum and illiminates the back pressure. There are two types of condensor.
Parts of Nuclear Reactor
- Reactor Core
- Control Rod
Types of Reactor
The nuclear reactor can be classified on the bases of the following.
- Neutron Energy
- Thermal Reactor
- Fast Reactor
- Types of Fuel Used
- Natural Uranium
- Enriched Uranium
- Types of Moderators Used
- Graphit Reactor
- Water (ordinary, Heavy) Reactor
- Types of Coolant Used
- Water Cooled (H2O, D2O) Reactor
- Gas cooled (H, CO2) Reactor
- Liquid Metal Reactor
- Organic Liquid Reactor.
- Types of Core Used
- Homogenous Reactor
- Hetrogenous Reactor
By combination of light nuclei (h, He). this process of releasing energy is known as fusion
By breaking of heavy nuclei into nuclei of intermediate atomic number. this process of releasing energy is known as fission reaction.