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Definitions regarding Electromagnetic waves

Some important definitions of terms used in electromagnetic waves.i.e wavelength multiplexing,fresnel reflection, optical dispersion, absorption, scattering, group velocity photon, polarization, wave length λ


RefractionOptical rays are the single line or narrow beam of light from a small or distant source.

Electromagnetic Waves

When the alternating current passes through a wire than it sets up an electromagnetic field that propagate away from the wire.

Laser Accessories Part 4 (Detectors)


Detectors are device used with lasers to detect or discover the presence of something. There are two categories of the detectors used with laser systems which further splits in their types.

Laser Accessories Part 3 (Q-Switches)

Electro Optic Q-Switch

The Q-Switch is a device which is placed inside the laser cavity. Main purpose of the Q-switch is to rapidly change the feedback of a laser cavity from minimum to maximum.

Laser Accessories Part 2 (Optical Materials)

Currently there are a great number of materials available for use in the optical components. Unfortunately not all optical materials are suitable for use with all laser components.

Laser Accessories Part 1 (Prism & Lens)


Mostly the laser is not used by itself but rather, it is combined with a number of accessories and used as part of larger system. The elaborate systems consisting of lenses, mirrors, prism, computer controllers and a vast array of electromechanical devise such as Q-switches etc.

Semiconductor lasers

Semiconductor Laser Construction

The semiconductor laser is very small in size and appearance. It is similar to a transistor and has the operation like LED but the output beam has the characteristics of laser light.

Dye Laser (A Liquid Laser)

Dye Laser Construction Diagram basic Blocks

In dye laser the liquid material called dye (for example rhodamine B, sodium fluoresein and rhodamie 6G) uses as an active medium, which causes to produce laser light.

Solid State Lasers

Solid State Laser Construction Basic Blocks

The lasers having the solid material as an active medium is called the solid state lasers. Generally there are two classes of solid state lasers.

CO2 Laser (The molecular gas laser)

Sealed Tube Design For CO2 lasers

The CO2 stands for carbon dioxide. In CO2 laser the laser light takes place within the molecules of carbon dioxide rather than within the atoms of a pure gas. Therefore CO2 gas laser is considered the type of molecular gas laser.

Argon LASER (An Ion Gas Laser)

Typical Argon Laser

Argon is the name of gas. The argon laser active medium consists of this gas, where the lasing takes place due to ions of argon gas. That is why argon laser is the most popular type of ion lasers.

He-Ne Laser

Helium Neon Laser Consturction

He-Ne stands for Helium-Neon. The He-Ne laser active medium consists of two gases which do not interact form a molecule. Therefore He-Ne laser is one type of atomic gas lasers.

Characteristics of GAS Lasers

The lasers having gas as an active medium is called gas lasers. Generally there are three classes of gas lasers.

Laser Output as a function of time

Normal Pulsed Laser Block Diagram

From design point of view we can say that output of all lasers is not constant. Different types of applications require different types of lasers.


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