Digital Electronics

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Digital electronics notes, lectures for engineering and diploma students


Asynchronous & Synchronous Clamping Certain applications in electronics require that the upper or lower extremity of a wave be fixed at a specific value In such applications ,a clamping/clamper circuits are  used.

Digital Multiplexing

Digital Multiplex System (DMS) is the name shared among several different telephony product lines from Nortel Networks for wire line and wireless operators.


Decoder Circuit Diagram Encoder and Decoder are Used to convert Digital signal to analog and analog signal to digital. Decoder for Digital to Analog and Encoder for Analog To Digital


Basic Digital Concepts

By converting continuous analog signals into a finite number of discrete states, a process called digitization, then to the extent that the states are sufficiently well separated so that noise does create errors, the resulting digital signals allow the following (slightly idealized):

Binary Arithmetic

Each digit in binary is a 0 or a 1 and is called a bit, which is an abbreviation of binary digit. There are several common conventions for representation of numbers in binary.

Binary Logic States

The following table attempts to make correspondences between conventions for defining binary logic states. In the case of the TTL logic gates we will be using in the lab, the Low voltage state is roughly 0-1 Volt and the High state is roughly 2.5-5 Volts.


An Instruction is a command given to the computer to perform a specified operation on given data. The instruction set of a microprocessor is the collection of the instructions that the microprocessor is designed to execute.

Speed of Microprocessor

Speed of 8086/8088 Microprocessor

The speed of microprocessor indicates that how much it is speedy to execute different programes or instructions. There are different points which are involved in a speed of microprocessor which are explained below.

8086/8088 Microprocessor

The 8086 microprocessor is available with clock frequency of 5, 8 and 10 megahertz.E.U Execution Unit, Control Circuit, Instruction Decoder, ALU, General Purpose Register, Special Purpose Register, block diagram

8086-8088 Microprocessor BIU Unit

8086-8088 Microprocessor BIU Unit generates the system central signal and accept these signals. It keeps the pre-fetch queue filled with instructions. It works as a window between E.U and memory.

8086-8088 Microprocessor Memory Division

The memory of 8086 microprocessor is divided into sixteen parts or segments. In the given diagram we will take or use only four segments that are


The printer is an ouput device which gives the hard copy of the data or graphics stored in the memory of computer. There are two main types of printers.

Operational Amplifier differentiator & Integrator

The operational amplifier is an amplifier which is directly coupled between the output and input, having a very high gain.

Clipper circuits

A clipper is a device which limits, remove or prevents some portion of the wave form (input signal voltage) above or below a certain level In other words the circuit which limits positive


Simple RC circuits are not used in switching circuits, especially, in integrated circuit. However, inductors are still used, as in the case of current sweep generation, tunnel diode monostable and astable circuits.


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